In the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful
Supplication of the Oppressed
By Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhali may Allah have mercy on him
The Shaykh comments on this narration in his explanation of al-Adab al-Mufrad by Imaam Bukhari on page 48-49 Vol 2. He said,
481. On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
ثَلاَثُ دَعَوَاتٍ مُسْتَجَابَاتٍ: دَعْوَةُ الْمَظْلُومِ، وَدَعْوَةُ الْمُسَافِرِ، وَدَعْوَةُ الْوَالِدِ عَلَى وَلَدِهِ
“Three supplications are answered: supplication of the oppressed, the supplication of the traveler and the supplication of the parent for his child.”
This hadith mentions three (types of individuals) whose supplications are answered due to the high status (of their circumstances) in the legislation of Islam:
The first is the supplication of the one who was oppressed in regards to his blood, honor and/or wealth. When this type of person supplicates against his oppressor – with a truthful tongue, present heart and mind – Allah responds to his request even if he was a wicked doer (faasiq) or disbeliever (kaafir). This supplication is raised above the clouds and there is nothing that prevents it from reaching Allah. In fact, Allah allows the supplication to ascend due to Him being All-Aware (al-Khabeer) All-Seeing (al-Baseer) over His servants.
It has been attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he advised Mu’aadh (ibn Jabal) before he left to Yemen:
“…and beware the supplication of the oppressed, for surely there is no barrier between it and Allah.” [Bukhari, Muslim; on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbaas]
If this is the affair of the supplication of the oppressed, as you know O Muslim, then it is upon you to have mercy upon yourself and everyone besides yourself from falling into oppression. Beware of subjecting yourself to the punishments of Allah in this life and the next (due to oppression).
The second supplication that is answered is of the traveler – the one who is exhausted in his travels…His supplication is answered whether he supplicates good for himself or for others, or if he supplicates for any type of harm against the one who oppressed him. Indeed, his supplication is answered. Therefore, what is necessary is to aid the traveler – even if it by making a righteous supplication for him that would expand his breast and relax his soul. Perhaps supplication for him could aid him in his travels and allow him to perform righteous deeds and attain rewards.
The third supplication that is answered is the parents for their child – son or daughter; even if the parents supplicates for good or bad. And this is (sufficient) reason for the child to be obedient towards the parents, just as Allah commanded in His statements:
وَٱخۡفِضۡ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ ٱلذُّلِّ مِنَ ٱلرَّحۡمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ٱرۡحَمۡهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِى صَغِيرً۬ا
“And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: ‘My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.'” [Israa: 24]
وَوَصَّيۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ بِوَٲلِدَيۡهِ إِحۡسَـٰنًاۖ حَمَلَتۡهُ أُمُّهُ ۥ كُرۡهً۬ا وَوَضَعَتۡهُ كُرۡهً۬اۖ وَحَمۡلُهُ ۥ وَفِصَـٰلُهُ ۥ ثَلَـٰثُونَ شَہۡرًاۚ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۥ وَبَلَغَ أَرۡبَعِينَ سَنَةً۬ قَالَ رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِىٓ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٲلِدَىَّ وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ وَأَصۡلِحۡ لِى فِى ذُرِّيَّتِىٓۖ
“And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship And she brings him forth with hardship, and the bearing of him, and the weaning of him is thirty months, till when he attains full strength and reaches forty years, he says: ‘My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favour which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You, and make my off-spring good…'” [Ahqaaf: 15]
The Messenger (peace be upon him) commanded obedience to the parents in more than one narration. Like the narration attributed to Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) in which he said:
“A man came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and he said,
‘O Messenger of Allah, which of the people are the most deserving of my companionship?’
He said, ‘Your mother.’ Then the man said, ‘Then who?’ The Messenger replied ‘Then your mother.’ Then the man asked ‘Then who?’ The Messenger replied ‘Then your mother.’ Then the man asked, ‘Then who?’ and the Messenger replied, ‘Then your father.'” [Bukhari, Muslim]
If this is the affair of supplication of the parents for their children – as we know from the statements of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) – then it is required to be soft in our speech to them, fulfil their needs when they are present, be truthful with them, maintain ties with them to the best of our ability without being deficient, supplicate for both of them while they are alive and after death, and other good deeds which fall under being dutiful towards them – in speech and action and hope to be rewarded by Allah.
Translated by: Abu Awzaa’ee AbdusSalaam
الفقير الى الله