In the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful
The leader of the Muslims is picked from one of four ways
By Shaykh Abdul-Muhsin al-Abbaad al-Badr
The shaykh mentions this point of benefit* in his book “Qaftul Janaa ad-Daani”** under the statement, “Obedience to the leaders of the Muslims, both their rulers and their men of knowledge, is obligatory”:
Allah stated in surah Baqarah verse 30:
وَإِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ إِنِّى جَاعِلٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ خَلِيفَةً۬ۖ
And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place in the earth a Khalifaah.”
1. A text from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). If there are any specific texts (that indicates someone being the caliph), then he becomes the leader.
The people of knowledge have said that the caliphate of Abu Bakr was completed by that. What is correct is that there is no SPECIFIC TEXT from the Messenger that he specifically chose a caliph to come after him. Not Abu Bakr or other than him. Just as ‘Umar said at the time of his death:
“If I nominate a successor after me, then one who was better than me, that is, Abu Bakr, nominated a successor after him. But if I don’t nominate, then one who was better than me, that is, the Prophet, did not name a successor after himself.” [Agreed upon]
But there are many textual evidence which indicates that Abu Bakr was the rightful leader of the Muslims after the Prophet’s death. (I excluded this part from the translation for the reason of brevity. If anyone wishes to see it then comment below and I will post it.)
2. The people of knowledge choosing someone to become caliph.
This is shown with the companions who all agreed to have Abu Bakr as the leader of the Muslims after the Messenger’s death.
3. That the caliph chooses someone to succeed him.
Just as what happened with Abu Bakr when he chose ‘Umar to succeed him.
4. That a man triumphs over the people and obtains the caliphate by force.
So this person is acknowledged as the leader. Just as was the case when Abul ‘Abbas as-Saffaah seized the caliphate from Bani Umayyah.
*Shaykh Abdul-Muhsin references his findings back to Imaam Qurtabee’s tafseer as well as his teacher Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shinqiti in “Adwaaul Bayaan” may Allah have mercy on them both.
** This book is an explanation of the creed of ibn Abee Zayd al-Qayrawaani 386 AH. He is also known as “Little Imaam Maalik”
Translated by: Michael AbdusSalaam Deonarain
الفقير الى الله